The football is a team sport in which you face two teams , each consisting of eleven players using a balloon ball inside a playing field rectangular with two doors . The game is regulated by a set of codified rules and its objective is to score as many points (called goals or nets ) of the opponent, by passing the ball between the posts of the opposing goal.
It is an Olympic sport by the II Olympiad modern and easier to learn, that does not require special equipment and extreme adaptability to any situation made it a sport popular, practiced throughout the world. Originally an ancient, modern and consolidated his claim occurred in England , in the second half of the nineteenth century and then spread first in the rest of ‘ Europe and South America and then throughout the world. The most important football competition is the World Cup , held every four years under the auspices of FIFA , world football’s governing body. It’s most watched sporting event ever. To learn more, see the voices of football history and football costume.
The football of Florence
In Greece the fourth century BC we played the ‘ episciro (from the greek episkyros ) in the next Roman times was called harpastum , in which two factions had to wear a ball over the end line which prevailed in opposing and antagonistic, and the appearance physical than the purely competitive.
The birthplace of modern football was then the ‘ England , and in particular, colleges in Britain. The fact was born as a football elite sport: the football was first practiced by the young of the richest schools and universities.
A phase of play among athletes pioneering era – Museum of the History of Genoa , Genoa
On 24 October 1857 in Sheffield , Nathaniel Creswick founded the first football team in history: the Sheffield FC . But the contribution of the Creswick football did not stop there: with William Prest wrote in 1858 the Sheffield Rules ( Rules of Sheffield ), who were adding to those introduced earlier in the game rules and important as the duration of the match and the division of the same in two stages.
Calcium expanded like wildfire in England soon became the sport par excellence of the working class and not just the wealthy, as a fun sport, simple and tiring it was ideal to let off steam after a work week.
Map showing the distribution of calcium in the world. The countries where soccer is the most popular sport are in green and those where it is not red. The different colors indicate the number of practitioners per 1,000 inhabitants.
According to the study ” Big Count 2006 , “conducted by FIFA during the 2006 and published in May 2007 , worldwide there are 265 million people who play football in 38 million registered for the various companies. Including the referees and officials from the total of those directly involved in football reaches 270 million, or approximately 4% of world population. The continent with the most players in absolute terms the ‘ Asia (85 million players), followed by Europe (62), Africa (46), North America (43), South America (27) and Oceania (0.5 ) while the percentage increased dissemination occurs in Europe, North and South America, where people coninvolte represent 7% of their total population.
To learn more, see the entry rules of the game of football .
The official rules of the game of football (in English Laws of the Game , Rules of the Game) are 17 and are published by FIFA ,
The main rule that characterizes and differentiates this sport compared to rugby and handball is that the ball can not be touched or affected with arms and hands , mostly using the feet , but every other part of the body other than hands or arms is allowed . The player to the role of deputy goalkeeper is the only one who can touch the ball with his hands, but only within their own penalty area
The basic rules are to be applied at all levels of football, even if they are allowed some changes to the size of the pitch , size, weight and material of the ball , size of doors , the length of periods of play and number of replacements for matches between players with less than 16 years, women, veteran footballers (over 35) or carriers of handicap , provided that they comply with the basics of the game. Other changes, however, must have the consent of ‘ IFAB .
The first rules of football go back to ‘ 8 December 1863 when the newly formed Football Association approved the 14 rules written by Ebenezer Cobb Morley during a meeting at the Freemasons’ Tavern in London .
Gradually, the rules were revised and modified to form 17. In 1930 the rules were revised and rearranged by Stanley Rous and remained so until the next revision of 1997 .
Today’s 17 rules are:
The field of play ;
The balloon ,
The number of players ,
The ‘ players’ equipment ,
The ‘ referee ,
The assistant referees ;
The duration of the race ,
The ‘ start and restart of play ;
The ball in play and not in play ,
The scoring of a network ,
The offside ,
Fouls and misconduct ;
The penalty kick ,
The throw-in ;
The goal kick ,
The corner .
In addition to the 17 rules, help to regulate the game of football rules of regulation and also many additional IFAB decisions and other directives. It is also not a rule but a mode of behavior defined key for the game of soccer, fair play , for which FIFA has created an information campaign
A football match lasts 90 minutes and is played in two halves of 45 minutes each,
The aim of the game and determination of the winning team
The goal is to get the ball (originally a ball of leather ) in Port opponent, bounded by two vertical posts joined at the top by a crosspiece.
A football match is won by the team within 90 minutes of play score more goals than the opponent. In case of equal number of networks marked, or if goals were not reached, the game is considered a draw.
In competitions involving the knockout and then demand that the race has a winner, it usually occurs in extra time (two times the maximum duration of 15 minutes each) and, if still tied, it goes to penalty shoot out to determine who has access to the next round. Initially, in the event of a tie, the team qualified was determined by the toss of a coin .
Some variations in the mechanism of overtimes, introduced by the second half of the nineties included:
the golden goal : the first team to score in extra time wins the match and the game ends immediately.
the silver goal : the team that manages to get ahead on the first extra time wins the match without the need to compete in the second overtime;
These regulatory changes were abolished in 2004 .
In the case of lots of return, when the sum of the results of the two races gives a tie the team qualified to the next round (or possibly the winner of the competition when the final) can be determined with the away goal rule : qualifies the team which scores more away goals.
Roles, forms and patterns of play
To learn more, see the entries module (soccer) and Scheme (soccer) .
The goalkeeper, the only player who can play the ball with his hands
The principal roles of calcium 4: the goalkeeper , the defender , the midfielder and ‘ attacker . The rules state that only one player needs to be designated as a goalkeeper, while other roles are not mentioned.
The task of the goalkeeper is to prevent his team suffers goals. This is helped by the defenders, whose main function is to prevent attackers opponents to score networks. Finally, the midfielders are the link between the defenders and attackers.
Although players usually have specific tasks Colorado Storm for attack or defense need not always rimaere in their area of responsibility (defense, midfield or attack), but it is possible for a defendant to participate in the attack or, conversely, for a striker to help in defense .
The teams are usually arranged in the field according to some modules that have been canonized over time and during the course of the game apply different patterns of play depending on the interpretation of ‘ manager or technical manager of the team.
As for the Government of calcium necessary to distinguish between global, continental and national levels.
Government of football worldwide
The highest governing body of international football is FIFA , an acronym for Fédération Internationale de Football Association (in Italian Federation of International Football), which is based in Zurich , in Switzerland .
As regards the preparation, innovation and interpretation of rules football, by a body of 8 members, the ‘ IFAB , hinged in the structure of FIFA. This feature of the legislation of football took place exclusively in the field and mandatory professional and amateur, as the rules of the game of football, which are enforced through the ‘ referee and his assistants, he never set up an effective regulatory function subsidiary of continental and national federations.
Government at continental and national football
Six continental confederations affiliated to FIFA:
Asian Football Confederation (AFC) ‘s Asia (with the exception of Armenia , Azerbaijan , Georgia , Israel , Kazakhstan and Turkey ) and ‘ Australia .
Confederation of African Football (CAF) ‘s Africa .
Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF) ‘s North America , Central , the Caribbean , the Guyana , the French Guyana and Suriname .
Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL) ‘s South America except Guyana , French Guyana and Suriname .
Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) for the ‘ Oceania with the exception of ‘ Australia .
Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) for Europe, the ‘ Armenia , ‘s Azerbaijan , the Georgia , Israel , the Kazakhstan and Turkey .
Within the six continental federations operate national football federations. They oversee the football competitions in the respective country. A total of 208 national associations affiliated to FIFA or the continental federation and its affiliates are only 13 more to its continental federations.
Outside of the World Cup are active in associations representing regions or states are not recognized internationally, that are affiliated to the Nouvelle Fédération-Board (NF-Board) . The NF-Board comprises 31 members including 18 officers, 10 temporary and 3 associate.
To learn more, see the entry in the soccer world .
These competitions organized by different continental federations:
AFC : Asia Cup , AFC Champions League , AFC Cup
CAF : Africa Cup of Nations , CAF Champions League , CAF Confederation Cup , CAF Super Cup
CONCACAF : CONCACAF Gold Cup , CONCACAF Champions League
CONMEBOL : Copa America , Copa Libertadores , Copa Sudamericana , Recopa Sudamericana
OFC : Oceania Cup , OFC Champions League
UEFA : European Championships , UEFA Champions League , UEFA Champions League , UEFA Super Cup
To learn more, see the entries list of football matches in Africa , in Europe , in Oceania , South America and Football Leagues .
The FA Cup
Before the birth of the official competitions, calendars, clubs were formed exclusively of friendly matches . Friendly matches between teams were present in great numbers until the early sixties , when they had to give way to the growing number of official engagements. In 1871 , for example, some clubs British were unable to enroll in the first edition of the FA Cup , giocatasi in 1871-1872 , because their schedules were already full. Seeking to stabilize the situation, the club British decided to create their first championship in 1888-1889 . Thus were born the two main elements of the calendar of a club championship and the cup.
In the majority of countries are carried out two types of competitions: the national championship, which is the most important competition, and national cup (sometimes more than one) whose name varies depending on the country. In England , Spain and France , the cup was created before the national championship, giving the FA Cup , the Copa del Rey and Coupe Charles Simon a charm and a special aura. In contrast to the Italy Cup , which began after the opening of the Italian football championship , does not have much value between companies and fans Italians . In South America , however, is often absent from the idea of national cup: in other countries were set up cups called “League,” whose participants are exclusively professional clubs: the case of Scotland , who introduced a similar trophy in 1947 , called the Scottish League Cup .
The championships are the judges of the season on a team, as they are the only ones that allow to evaluate the consistency of a club over the year. But from some erratic teams can excel in the cup but hardly win a championship, conversely, a club regular performance may run into one bad game and the cup being often structured in direct clashes, this leads to being ousted from the competition.
The winner of the championship is generally proclaimed the end of the season, adding the points earned during the period of several days. Previously, a victory gave 2 points, a draw 1 point and defeat any point. Since the eighties , in various leagues has gradually adopted the system of 3 points to win, so as to increase the difference between victory and a draw. In some leagues, however, the winner is not declared at the end of the regular season , but only after a series of play-offs played between the teams that have had the best performance during the season. This system is typical of American sports, is rarely used in football, but it is for example used in the United States and, from season 2 008 – two thousand and nine , was also introduced in the Belgian football league that has grown from 18 to 16 teams.
Trophy League of Germany
Another important difference with the American system is the ability to be promoted or demoted of division. When the English second division was created in 1892 , all the top clubs unanimously decided not to give up the privilege of playing in the first series: therefore the Small Heath , the first sample of the second division in 1892-1893 soccer season was not promoted to first division . The system of promotion / relegation came into being only in 1899 after a series of play-offs where they challenged the first-placed second division of the first and last.
The “League” (a term indicating the first division) for some time remained hostile to all automatic promotion from the minor leagues, “non-League”, which indicated lower-level teams to the second division with a vote among the professional clubs settled thus creating the season 1.92 thousand – in 1921 the third division, which was to contain all the semi-professional teams. In 1986 the system was further amended by inserting a new division called Conference , which were inserted amateur formations. Such a change will be introduced in France in 1970 , with the creation of a league pyramid system “open” than the previous “closed” system (without promotion and relegation) used from 1932 to 1970. In this period several amateur clubs became professional, given that the last promotions had to do with the results obtained in the field. In some rare cases, such as the United States, there is no system of promotion / relegation (automatic or via the play-off / play-out ) between the various divisions, but still used the “closed” system.
Unlike the British model, the championships are usually created on a regional basis with the use of play-off between the various regional samples to determine the national champion. This particular system was used in France from 1894 to 1919 , with the created in the same year the Bundesliga .
In several countries of the ‘ Latin American championships are held in the form of opening and Clausura , then electing two samples each year. In Brazil , on the contrary, the national championship (called Brasileirão ) be in a unique formula: born relatively recently (in 1971 ), was added to the existing state championships , conducted state by state in the early months of the year and marked by a ‘almost equal importance to the national level (such as Gaucho Championship , the Paulista Championship , etc.). Unlike other South American countries, Brazil also has a domestic cup, the Copa do Brasil , opened in 1989 .
The major international club competitions were held between the parties originally usually Easter and the end of the season. One of the first events was the Challenge International du Nord , which stood in front of clubs every year French , Belgian , Swiss , British and Dutch , and which he held from 1898 to 1914 . Tournaments of this type are multiplied with each passing year also attended by renowned teams: the case of the Nations Cup played in 1930 in Geneva ( Switzerland ) and the International Tournament of Paris Universal Expo 1937 , which gathered the main clubs in the Old Continent.
The UEFA Champions League
The club Central Europe faced all year, starting in 1927 in Mitropa Cup (held until 1992 ) is challenged samples Spain , Italy , Portugal and France .
The evolution of transposed plane and the installation of lighting for night games, played during the week, made possible the creation of what are the current continental competitions. The “Champions of Europe” (named by the 1992-1993 UEFA Champions League , known simply as Champions League) was born in Paris on the initiative of sports daily L’Team : the first edition was held in 1955-1956 . Initially restricted to national champions, in the nineties the event was also open to sub-samples of each nation and then was allowed to participate also in third and fourth ranked according to the UEFA coefficient , which takes into account the results obtained by the clubs in 5 seasons earlier in order to determine which nations are entitled to bring more teams to the event. In addition to the Champions League, other cups are the Cup Winners’ Cup (C2) dedicated to the winners of domestic cup (abolished in 1999 ), the UEFA Europa League (formerly UEFA Cup, or C3), the Intertoto Cup (born in 1995 , latest edition in 2008 ) and the UEFA Super Cup : all these events are organized by UEFA .
Based on the European model, the other confederations created similar competitions: in South America the CONMEBOL organized the Copa América de Campeones (from 1965 called Copa Libertadores in the Spanish Copa Libertadores de América ) from 1960 to the winners of the national championship, the CONMEBOL Cup since 1992 to 1999 (equivalent of the UEFA Cup), the Mercosur Cup and the Cup Merconorte from 1998 to 2001 , merged by 2002 in the Copa Sudamericana (equivalent of the UEFA Champions League), and by 2003 the Recopa Sudamericana (equivalent of the UEFA Super Cup). In North America the CONCACAF staged from 1962 to the CONCACAF Champions’ Cup (since 2008 CONCACAF Champions League ) for the national champions and the CONCACAF Cup Winners Cup from 1991 to 1998 . . In Africa the CAF organized the CAF Champions League from 1964 to the national champions, the Cup Winners’ Cup in Africa from 1975 to 2003 for the winners of domestic cup and the CAF Cup from 1992 to 2003 (equivalent of the UEFA Cup), the merged 2004 in the Confederation Cup CAF , and by 1992 the CAF Super Cup . In Asia the AFC organized by the 1967 ‘s AFC Club Championship (since 2004 AFC Champions League ) for the national champions and the AFC Cup Colorado Rush Soccer since 2004. Finally, more recently, in Oceania ‘s OFC organized the ‘ OFC Club Championship (since 2007 OFC Champions League ) since 1987 .
The winners of the European Champions Cup and the Copa Libertadores is challenged from 1960 to 2004 in the Intercontinental Cup . The event was also open to other confederations in 2005 with the creation, not without difficulty, the Club World Cup by FIFA . A first pilot edition was held in 2000 , but the competition officially became an annual since 2005 . Along the lines of the Intercontinental Cup and the CONCACAF CONMEBOL also organized, albeit discontinuous, from 1968 to 1998 the Interamerican Cup , where they faced the winners of the Copa Libertadores and the CONCACAF Champions’ Cup and the AFC and the AFC Cup Samples of the Afro-Asian (or Intercontinental Cup Asia-Africa) from 1986 to 1998 .
Competition between nations
The Tournament Interbritannico (in English British Home Championship ), played from 1883 to 1984 , was the first competition that stood in front of national teams : it was played between the national teams of England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland .
The United Kingdom national football team won the Olympic Tournament in 1908
The project of a World Cup projects envisioned in the FIFA since its founding in 1904 Colorado Soccer , and saw its birth in 1930 under the impetus given by the Olympic football tournament . The Olympics were so far the biggest event in football, but with the advent of professionalism, even outside the British Isles in the twenties and thirty , national teams presented themselves at the Olympic Games are no longer with the national team, but teams formed exclusively by amateur players. Even for this Eastern European nations, officially non-professional, dominated the Olympic tournament after the World War II . In 1992 the International Olympic Committee decided to allow professionals to participate in games, but FIFA vetoed the participation of more National. It was therefore decided to deploy the young people who, at the beginning of the elimination phase (usually a year before the Games), had less than 21 years: thus was born the name Under-23 given by the IOC . were allowed to add 3 players who were over 23 years (called “quota”), leaving the choice to the discretion of the nation.
The FIFA World Cup , held every 4 years, is the most important event in world football. It was inaugurated in 1930 by Jules Rimet , the FIFA President at the time: in the current format, the final is played by 32 national teams (this number was fixed in 1998 , as previously admitted to the final selections were 24 ) , qualified by means of elimination rounds held by each confederation in the 2 years prior to the final stage. Eight national teams have won at least once the World Cup: the Brazil (5 wins), the ‘ Italy (4), the Germany (3), the ‘ Argentina (2), the ‘ Uruguay (2), the ‘ England The France and Spain (1).
The confederations in turn organize the continental events: the European Football Championship , the African Cup of Nations , the CONCACAF Gold Cup , the Copa America , the Oceanian Cup of Nations and the Asian Nations Cup . In 1992 was created the Confederations Cup , initially by invitation, then every two years since 1997 and organized every 4 years starting in 2005 , confronts, in addition to the winners of the 6 events listed above, the host country and the holder of the Cup World.
The events described above were born initially as male, but the organization itself has been applied to young people (Youth Championships Under-20 and Under-17 ) and for women, such as the World Cup women’s soccer and the corresponding events.
National football teams
To learn more, see the entry Category: National football .
List of European national football teams
List of South American national football teams
List of national football teams of Africa
List of Asian national football teams
List of North American national football teams
List of Oceanian national football teams
Variations of calcium
To learn more, see the entry Category: Variations of the game of football .
To learn more, see items 5 Football and Football at 5 (FIFA) .
A free kick in a game of football in 5
The Football 5 (run, as for football, the FIFA and in parallel in a version with slightly different rules from ‘ AMF – Asociación Mundial de Futsal ) is played between two teams of 5 players each. The matches last 40 minutes and are held two times 20 minutes effective.
Different is also the management of faults : the offenses are mainly the same as in football but, similarly to what happens for example in basketball , from the sixth fouls in one half is given a free kick directly without the possibility of forming a barrier.
The matches take place on fields smaller than the football , and using doors and a balloon too small. Between the two versions, there are some differences, particularly regarding the size of fields and balls, and rules governing the role of the goalkeeper .
Football and soccer at 7 to 8
To learn more, see the entries in Soccer 7 and 8 Football .
The football 7 and 8 or football calciotto are a mix between soccer and football 5 . Also in this case the main differences are the duration of time (two of respectively 20 and 25 minutes each), the field size, smaller than that of calcium, and the absence of the offside.
To learn more, see the voice Beach soccer .
Action of a game of beach soccer in Israel
The beach soccer is played barefoot on the sand in a field of 35 for 25 yards. The game is played over 3 periods of 12 minutes each, for a total of 36 effective minutes, until the clock is stopped when the game is interrupted. All free kicks are direct and are beaten without the barrier.
Unlike football there expulsions time: If a player receives two yellow cards must leave the field for 2 minutes without being replaced and the expulsion yellow card is the third received a yellow card. The throw-ins can be beaten with both feet with your hands .
To learn more, see the entry Showbol .
A lot of showbol in Mexico
The showbol or, as is known in North America , soccer indoor , is very similar to futsal , but is played on a field turf somewhat smaller and bordered by a fence against which the ball can bounce without ever leaving the game.
The game is played between two teams of 6 players, one goalkeeper, two times 25 minutes each.
Football for disabled
To learn more, see the entry wheelchair football .
There are three variants of football for disabled people , in particular used in Paralympic Games : one for people with blindness , one for people with cerebral palsy and the other for disabled people in wheelchairs .
The first is played between two teams of 5 players each. The goalkeeper must not suffer from total blindness (B-1). Are held two times 25 minutes each and the field, shaped rectangular , is long between 38 and 42 feet wide and between 18 and 22 meters. It uses a ball that emits a sound clearly audible to the players.
The second is very similar to the traditional football. The most important differences occur in the number of players (7 per team), the smaller size of the playing field and doors , the lack of offside and the freedom to do throw-ins. Players are eligible to have a cerebral palsy class 5 to 8.
The calcium in a wheelchair is similar to soccer 5 and is played on a tennis basketball between two teams of 4 players each, that will deal with in two halves of 20 minutes each.
There are several other variants of football, many with rules derived from the intersection with other sports .
A game of RoboCup in 2005
The footvolley is a mixture of soccer football on wikipedia and beach volleyball , or, if the lower net was installed, the courts . The purpose of the game is, as in volleyball or tennis, to pass the ball over a network, but hitting for a limited number of times and with the parts of the body allowed by the rules of football . A professional level is played 2 against 2.
The Jorkyball , however, combines aspects of soccer and squash and also played 2 against 2.
There are also Swedish football that is played while sitting, and the soapy soccer , like soccer 5 but played on a surface covered with water and soap to make the slippery and unstable equilibrium of the players.
Furthermore, calcium has inspired the creation of games like Subbuteo or football , and more recently, with the advent of robotics , with similar rules of competitions for robots such as the RoboCup .